artificial intelligence is making rapid

strides there's talk of a new evolution

that could fundamentally change life on

our planet artificial intelligence has

the potential to revolutionize every

the aspect of daily life work mobility

medicine the economy and communication

but will AI make medicine better

and dr. superfluous

when will self-driving cars hit our

roads will intelligent robots usurp our

jobs and are we heading for a dystopia

with no privacy in a total surveillance

what exactly is artificial intelligence

change and what will remain pure fantasy

to answer these questions we embarked on

an exciting journey to meet the

scientists working on our future in the

US Britain Germany and China

our first stop Silicon Valley in

California Apple Google and Facebook all

have their headquarters here it's the epicenter of the digital revolution the tech industry has changed the face of

the San Francisco Bay Area new startup

companies launch everyday rents have

exploded and artificial intelligence is

the buzzword a new type of supermarket

recently opened its doors here amazon go

mobile phone to the scanner and you're in as Leonardo shows me Amazon's new menus

and explains that the language assistant

Alexa can help with the preparation at

home I'm under constant surveillance

which shelf do I stop at which products

am I interested in on the ceiling sensors and cameras

intelligent image recognition captures

test phase but Amazon plans to open 50

such grocery stores this year alone the

end of the sales assistant just walkout

no more standing in line no cashiers I

comfort at the cost of privacy my

receipt one block away

a robot cafe another test lab for the

future order by app and touchscreen the

increasingly ubiquitous terms of trade

my first ever cup of coffee served by a

AI will change our shopping experience

but what will happen to employees

Stanford University is at the forefront

of global AI research with an annual budget of 6.5 billion dollars

I want to know how will artificial

intelligence change medicine researchers

here have developed an artificial

intelligence algorithm that can screen

x-rays for certain diseases computer

scientists Pranav raj poor car shows me

an x-ray with your mobile phone upload

the diagnosis's a mass and it's

saying this thing over here is it

possibly cancerous lesion and I can see

that right over here okay so it gives

you if I may have a look at it now

probabilities for pneumonia inaudible

edema effusion and that goes bang yeah

get to the point we started with the

large data set of chest x-rays which

were released by the NIH and these

contained x-rays and then also labels of

different pathologies and whether they

existed in those extra so it might say

have pathology one two and three and we

had a hundred thousand of these images

the probability of several different

pathologies on this x-ray

artificial intelligence is modeled on

the human brain a gigantic network of

almost 100 billion interconnected

neurons brain cell works incoming impulses are

passed in a domino effect from one

neuron to the next the resulting circuit

connects the neurons and it is this circuit that artificial intelligence

tries to simulate as a digital neural

network like our brains the network can

learn how to identify tuberculosis for

instance first the network needs to be

trained or taught x-rays of tuberculosis

patients are fed to the system initially

it struggles to correctly identify the

condition but every time an x-ray is fed

in the network's structure is adapted

and its diagnostic ability improves it

takes thousands and thousands of

clinical data sets to train the machine

only after the network is optimized in

this way can it correctly identify an unknown x-ray

but how accurate is artificial

intelligence compared to a doctor's expertise we have done this had a group of radiologists label and

then we compared the accuracy of the

model to the radiologists and we found

that they were very similar in terms of

accuracy on most pathologies on one of

them the model was outperforming the

radiologists on three of them the

radiologists were outperforming the

model and then we repeated the

experiment this time using a data set

from Stanford which we recently released

which is two hundred thousand chest

x-rays and then we had a similar setup

where we had three subspecialty

radiologists these are very uncommon

very trained radiologists to decide what

the ground truth for a particular set of

images were and then we compared general

radiologists to the algorithm at the

task and found that they had similar

levels of performance these are all

Stanford radiologists so so they're that

reading x-rays accurately is a

complicated process but artificial

intelligence is making fast progress

when it comes to identifying or

recognizing simple images computers have

surpassed human accuracy now if I look

at your picture, it's always

probabilities so there are cases where

the machine is not sure what what

okay this is I don't know

pneumonia or something else yeah I think

terms of probabilities because

probabilities also give a sense of the algorithm the models uncertainty on that particular problem I think one

difficulty with probabilities is that it

does make it hard for humans to

interpret like what is the probability

of 88 percent versus 92 percent mean in

terms of the decision I should make in

one of the things that we could

experiment with doing in the futures

rather than showing probabilities that

are so fine-grained maybe we can show

things like unlikely or thus pathologies

likely or this pathology is possible

in healthcare artificial intelligence is

powering revolution scientists are

using artificial intelligence algorithms

to sift through seemingly banal data

such as the up-and-down motion of the

steps we take every day they're looking

for conspicuous patterns that could

serve as early warning signs of disease

scientists in the English city of

Birmingham are working on a

revolutionary diagnostic method to date

there are no specific tests to detect

Parkinson's disease making a diagnosis

difficult AI could change that

max little is a mathematician at Aston

very good you just voice changes can be

an early indicator of Parkinson's Max

and his team collected thousands of

vocal recordings and fed them to an algorithm they developed which learned to detect differences in voice patterns

between people with and without the

condition in a lab-based study of the

recordings the algorithm was able to

correctly identify a Parkinson's

diagnosis nearly 99% of the time Max

littles work is an example of the

far-reaching changes ai is bringing to

the field of medicine it's no longer

just doctors who are using artificial

intelligence to develop new diagnostic

methods but data scientists programmers

and mathematicians like max one example

when a person walks sensors in their

smartphone register the up-and-down motion of their gait but what

information can be gleaned from such

data if we measured a pattern of

someone's walking behavior than someone

who's healthy might have we might

measure the accelerometer to look like

that okay so it's just the sort of movement you would have yeah their hips going up and down regularly that kind of

thing along with their pace

but if you looked at some of your

Parkinson's disease may have these

small steps like this and they may be

irregular or they may have patterns like

that well they may even freeze and stop

like that so you can see that

there's not a different there's a difference so you can also now train an algorithm, for instance, to pick out

features like what is there the distance

between the time distance between these

these Peaks and it could also do the

same with this and it would be able to

do that very precisely and by doing so

we may be able to measure for instance

to here that there's a large variability

in between these so the advantage the algorithm comes when 

the, for instance, you might have somebody who who

is say who measures a pattern which

looks like know some variation that's right in the

in the sequence of these in the timing

of these events even to a

professional eye because they don't have

the level of precision they may not be

able to detect that this is outside of

the normal range of a variation but of

course an algorithm connected to a high

precision sensor well you know we'll be

able to determine that difference and in

this case this person here may in fact

have a precursor symptom of the disease

so this would mean that this person with

the help of an algorithm could be

diagnosed as having Parkinson whereas

the doctor himself would miss him out

that could for the first time make it

possible to detect precursor symptoms of

Parkinson's and enable early

intervention but what else does the data

on our smartphones reveal right now you

have already apps tracking your

so-called activity yeah so, in fact, the data hmm

well the data potentially could be there

that's right but there are ethics about

whether we collect that kind of data and

use it for these sorts of purposes

now clearly we can't just collect this

data and start diagnosing people which

journalists we should not 

know absolutely look we could but we

really wouldn't want to there are very

a proper you know regulated setting

after our interview max little tells me

he's received several lucrative offers

to join tech giants who smell new

business opportunities

he turned them down artificial

intelligence will undoubtedly improve

doctors abilities to detect and diagnose

disease but amid all the opportunities

AI offers there's an urgent need 

for regulation, we're on our way to China

a country that has experienced

breathtaking change in recent years its

capital Beijing is buzzing the whole country is hungry for progress and is on move faster here by the year 2030 China

aims to be the global leader in the

field of artificial intelligence and

there's a lot to indicate it will meet

that goal because the government has

Bank world subsidy programs worth

billions of euros

these robots aren't assembling cars

there the big attraction in Beijing's

latest smart restaurant

ái in the kitchen and automated waiters

I have a meeting here with the design

researcher geisha, you'll stay a former

Internet ambassador for the German government she's currently spending a research semester at Tong jean

University in Shanghai I asked her about

her impressions of China there's this

real hunger in the city and it's super

fun to talk to young people because they

want to be the motors of change they

work day and night they have a new

work-life balance model it's called nine

the better model now because they used

to just work non-stop but no one's

stopping them no one's hitting the

brakes they work like crazy because they

want to bring about change this

restaurant cost 20 million dollars which

is the one restaurant they've invested

this huge sum to digitize the entire operation they aren't just robots

serving the food the whole kitchen is

digitized refrigeration has monitored

supply chains are monitored there are

dashboards for everything is

connected here where they're testing

what works and which aspects can be

implemented in other restaurants of this chain that's the idea here to just try things and to think big thank you

so I'll just help myself if I may

anyhow but what about privacy they seem

to be a trade-off between security and privacy

you often hear how AI has increased

Public Safety for instance that the ability of surveillance cameras have dramatically increased crime solving

rate it's hard for us to relate to

because privacy and personal rights are

so important for Germans but here

there's a different tradition and take on the issue

I'm fascinated by China but it also puzzles me

how can they be reconciled the high civilization of ancient China and the modern industrial state with

surveillance cameras everywhere

the long-gone district in Shenzhen in

the heart of China's booming economic region north of Hong Kong we visit the smart city control center a giant

monitor displays the data of the entire

district in real-time numbers of new

residents by neighborhood to plan

schools water supply levels power

outages all this information is

collected compiled and evaluated using

artificial intelligence the showcase project was developed with Chinese tech giant Huawei chief engineer Chen bomb ty

tells me the city now operates more

efficiently so what you're doing here is

urban planning yes the systems are a big

help these are hospital beds right now there

are 15,000 doctors and nurses and 7600

beds so a Shenzhen currently healthier

sick a smart surveillance system scans the

entire city illegal structures like this

one on a roof are quickly identified and

demolished to me some of this feels like

the backdrop to a science fiction movie

employees with live streaming body cams

inspect side streets this is total


chan shows me how cameras installed in

restaurant kitchens even keep tabs on

cleanliness but doesn't the chef mind

being monitored all the time the system

logs all the people who view the images

anyone who looks at them without

permission is total transparency for the

purpose of progress Chen says, residents

of Leung, Gong District approve

jaywalking is not allowed and offenders

are immediately identified look here you

jaywalk once and right away your social

credit score drops this degree of surveillance is

unthinkable in the West but here in

China takes a different view and say

say here male youth without glasses you

yes suddenly you're a youth I love

Chinese facial recognition uses a

transparent society in the interest of

efficiency some of this appears useful

but do we want to measure control

and analyze everything just because it's

technically possible won't that

inevitably lead us down a road to data

dictatorship maybe trust is better than smart control

Silicon Valley a synonym for innovation

and unlimited freedom the biggest

players in the field of AI are based

here but their headquarters are hidden

behind inconspicuous low-rise buildings

Facebook we use their services entrust

them with our data but the company is

impervious to the public a selfie at the

next door at Apple the visitor centers

non-employees can get to the new

building what's going on inside

we want to visit Google here in California and requested an interview

weeks before our arrival but all we get

are stalling tactics like these visitors

Google leaves us out in the cold apart

from a small store, this is the only

visitor highlight accessible to the

public these Android lawn statues are

even a designated location on Google

uber steed annoyed in Visio via app suta Facebook refused to answer

questions the personnel to Facebook the

European Union handing Google a 2.7

billion dollars antitrust find these

companies command growing power over our

daily lives and growing political

influence Google spends more than 6

million euros a year lobbying Brussels

alone thee use transparency register

lists more than 200 meetings with Google

representatives since 2014 Google is the busiest lobbyist in Brussels we finally get our interview, not in California but

in Munich Germany with one of the

longest-serving employees yen's made ma

how important is AI for Google kaya is

two years ago we rebranded our entire

research to the mission to Google AiAi

drives a significant part of our product

development a I above all drives a significant part of our efforts to

improve the quality of our products take

machine translation through the use of

machine algorithms we've seen faster

progress over the last two years than we

did over the entire previous decade

Society will undoubtedly be propelled

forward by the implementation of these

to come what's key is that it's done

responsibly under the principles of transparency, we need to explain how things work why they are needed where

people's data goes on how they can control

to delete it the user must have the

control design but what about technologies like Google

home the smart microphone sitting in

people's living rooms Google home who at

Google Home isn't East dropping there's

a small chip on the device that listens

out for the so-called hot word it's

waiting for the command

the microphone switched on to send a

voice command for search requests into

the Internet the Google server it then

presents the results Google Suzanne has done

there's are giving us a present yen this

heist so as a science reporter I'm

naturally curious about the future

there's this patent application from

September 2016 Google's application

gives a detailed account of what can be

deduced from household noises how long

we brush our teeth whether we argue or

whether a housemate is ill Thank You

disinvite it's much more about capturing

atmosphere and habits than words and

it's a Google patent application that