Causes of emigration

A migrant can be defined according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) as any person who moves from his place of residence to another place within or outside his country across international borders, regardless of his legal status or period His residence in the new place, or the reasons and factors that pushed him to emigrate, or if his emigration was voluntary or it was forcibly carried out, and in general the factors that affect people's decisions to migrate can be divided into two categories, which are the following:

Push Factors: These are the factors that make continuing to live in the original place undesirable, such as the lack of job opportunities, political unrest, or overpopulation.

Attraction or pull factors: (English: Pull Factors), which are the factors available in the place to be migrated to, which encourage living in that place and make it desirable, such as the availability of good job opportunities, or the presence of family and friends in that place.

 The following are the main reasons that push people to emigrate:

Economic factors

 According to several studies, the economic factors resulting from:

Low income, unemployment, underemployment, and poverty are the most important reasons that push people - especially in developing countries - to migrate to prosperous regions in search of better economic opportunities, whether migration is internal or external, and economic factors are classified into the following:

Push factors:

 Among the economic push factors that compel people to migrate are the following:

Lower productivity.

Poverty.

The spread of unemployment resulting from the population explosion.

 Poor economic conditions.

 Lack of opportunities for advancement.

 The introduction of agricultural machinery to work instead of the human element, and the failure to provide alternative sources of income for agricultural activities, which leads to reduced employment in rural areas.

 Depletion of natural resources.

natural disasters.

 The existence of some social traditions that do not allow the division of property, which forces some young people to migrate to search for jobs.

 No source of support for the family.

 Push factors:

The following are some of the economic attractions that attract immigrants to a place or country:

 Provides good job opportunities.

 Availability of high income.

 Provide adequate working conditions.

 It offers good facilities and services.

 The rapid growth of industry and commerce resulting in job creation.

 Technological advances and cultural changes that contribute to the development of society.

 A large proportion of investment is concentrated in urban centers, which contributes to creating higher-wage job opportunities. Searching for better cultural and leisure activities.


 Demographic factors


 The difference in the rates of population increase between different regions in the same country is one of the important factors that push people to internal migration. Among the other important demographic factors are the following:

 The scarcity of domestic workers, which causes people to migrate to work at home.

 Marriage, where the girl moves to another region to settle in after marrying a person who lives in that region.

 Women return to their parents' area to have children.


 Social and cultural factors


 Many social and cultural factors play an important role in migration, including the following:

The presence of family conflicts that push people to move to another place.

The development in urban cities as modern means of communication, for example, transportation.

 The influence of the media, such as television and cinema, that contribute to changing people's attitudes and values, and reinforce the idea of ​​their emigration to another country.

 Provides quality education in the countries of destination to immigrate.


 Sociopolitical factors


 Many sociopolitical factors play an important role in migration, and they can be divided into:

 Push factors: The following are the most important push factors:


 the war.

 Ethnic persecution.

 religious persecution.

 racism.

Cultural persecution.

 The threat of conflict.

 slavery.

Political instability resulting from cultural diversity.

Persecution resulting from a person's nationality, membership in a social group, or because of their political views.


Attraction factors: Political factors can be factors that attract people to immigrate if the country to which immigration is to be distinguished by democracy and has many freedoms; Like freedom in education, freedom to work, or freedom to choose a place of residence.


Other factors


 Many other factors contribute to internal or external migration, and here are some of them:

 The presence of relatives and friends in the urban areas to which they are intended to migrate and who are very willing to assist the immigrant.

Desire to have an education that is sometimes only found in urban areas.

 cultural diversity.

 Personal traits and individual attitudes, such as an emphasis on the ability to self-reliance, and a person's enjoyment of great activity and vitality that drives him to migrate, and other characteristics that are associated with the existence of an individual's tendency to migrate.


The effects of migration


Many effects are resulting from migration, and here are some of them:

Economic effects

The effects of economic migration are reflected in both the host country and the sending country, as will be mentioned:

The host country: Immigration plays an important role in improving the economic situation of the host country and provides flexible labor markets, and despite this, the increase in the number of immigrants in it can increase pressure on public services such as education and facilities, and negatively affect the per capita GDP, and decrease In wages, especially wages of low-experienced indigenous country workers.

Sending country: Migration can affect the country the migrants have left, and the health sector is the sector most affected. Because they seek to improve their economic situation, which negatively affects the sending country; Due to the depletion of local infrastructure; And because economic incentives in host countries often attract health professionals.

 Other effects

 The following are some of the other effects resulting from migration:


Fill in vacancies, especially those that are not very popular.

 Providing skilled and experienced workers such as nurses and teachers.

 Young workers benefit from what contributes to the profit of the state budget.

 Solving the problem of the aging population in some countries through the migration of young people to them.

 Attracting potential entrepreneurs to the new country.

 Increase cultural diversity. Rising housing and rent costs as a result of the increase in population in an area.

 The existence of social disharmony that can arise due to rapid migration.

 Threatening national identity and threatening national security as a result of illegal immigration or terrorism.

 Brain drain and those with technical or cognitive skills