Definition of brain drain

 The term brain drain refers to the transfer of scientists, skills, specialists, and people with skills and talents from countries with limited economic and living conditions to developed countries. The search for better living conditions, a more stable political and social environment, access to advanced technological systems, to obtain better job opportunities with higher wages and thus a better quality of life, and a brain drain, or as it is called academically, is the migration of human capital (in language English: The Journey of Human Capital) is a matter of international concern; This is due to its negative impact on the conditions of countries that have been subjected to the migration of their human capital abroad.

Brain drain is not a recent phenomenon, as history has witnessed large migrations of skilled people from rural areas to cities, and brain drains from Europe to North America in the nineteenth century. And the twentieth century, but in the current era, the most common brain migrations come from developing countries in Asia, Africa, and some countries. Latin American countries to developed countries and the most comprehensive talents and capabilities such as America and some European countries. Brain drain is not limited to migration from developing countries to developed countries. Brain drain sometimes occurs between two developed countries, especially in the financial, health, software, and aerospace fields; In fact, some developed countries offer better opportunities in these areas than other developed countries.


Forms of brain drain

 Brain drain takes many forms; there is a brain drain geographically from one country to another which includes their skills and capabilities, and there is a brain drain that occurs through a massive transfer of skills from a company due to its lack of stability. And the lack of opportunities available to them in the company for career advancement and advancement, for other companies that provide them with the privileges and capabilities necessary for a better career. This increases their ability to reach and develop, as with the third form of brain drain, which is to abandon the skills of an entire industry or field and search for another field that can meet their requirements. And forms of business and industry migration usually occur when a country's economic situation is generally tense. Far from being open to new technologies and technologies, the opportunities to achieve personal and professional security seem difficult.


Causes of the brain drain

Many reasons lead to the brain drain from one country to other countries, but it can be divided into two main parts:

 The first is related to the causes of migration from the motherland, which include lack of capacity and resources, poor economic conditions, high unemployment rates, and weak research and scientific capabilities, and sometimes this is possible. It includes political instability or insecurity in life, while the other side includes the reasons that attract a brain drain. These reasons are related to the country that attracts souls to migrate to it, as countries attract more job opportunities with better wages and a higher ceiling for intellectual freedom, in addition to the cultural richness of these countries, from development. Education systems in these countries provide a better quality of life for people with skills and knowledge.

To learn more about the causes of the brain drain, read our reasons for the brain drain.

The effects of the brain drain

The negative effects of brain drain vary in different areas, the most important of which are the following:

[The widening gap between the attractive developed countries and the countries of origin.

 The subordination of brains and cultural skills to the countries to which they immigrated, and the abandonment of their customs and traditions, which negatively affects their identities.

 The high cost of attracting foreign talent, which will fill the shortage in an attractive country and train them to work there.

 Lack of scientific research, which means that countries in need of skills depend on the countries that attract them.

The enormous material loss is represented in the national resources allocated to educating qualified persons before immigration.

Impede the intellectual and educational development in the country from which skills migrate, affect development processes, and increase the tasks and burdens of the remaining individuals, which may lead to their indifference, fatigue, and lower productivity.

The loss of a large percentage of the productive forces in various fields, which negatively affects the economy of the country from which minds migrate.

The decline in the economic, health, and social level of the country of origin of talent; As a result of losing scientists and specialists in these fields.

The positive effects of brain drain

 There are several positive effects of brain drain despite many negative effects that it produces, including the following:

Remittances and the increase of money transferred by individuals to countries of origin, which supports the development process.

Exchange and transfer of knowledge to countries of origin through conferences and participation in scientific projects.

Promote the development and use of technology, and provide the necessary support for development in countries that attract talent and mental strength.

The possibility of returning migrants to their country of origin after acquiring the skills necessary for the development process for the benefit of their country of origin.

Reducing the brain drain

 The negative effects of brain drain can be reduced by imposing policies that encourage the skills they belong to and trying to put their expertise and skills at the service and satisfaction of the nation. And it puts an end to all its economic and development repercussions because the countries affected by this phenomenon need the concerted efforts of all local efforts and the cooperation of governmental and non-governmental institutions. Attracting skills from other countries and compensating for the lack of local skills. Here are some examples of measures that limit the brain drain phenomenon:

Providing vital and encouraging economic opportunities: One of the most important factors of brain drain is the lack of job opportunities in their homeland, and if these opportunities are available, they may not benefit from them, wages are adapted to the standard of living, so the economy must be revitalized and the skills are given job opportunities that encourage survival and success in the motherland.

 Providing a stable political and social environment: Encourages competent people to feel confident that their country is free of corruption and on a clear path towards development and prosperity, and to stay there and invest their capabilities and skills on its soil. ; Therefore, it is imperative for a country affected by the migration of its talent to provide a comfortable and safe political environment, and a vibrant social space that builds skills confidence in the country's future.

 Promoting a sense of national identity: One of the important goals that countries affected by brain drain should strive to achieve is to build a strong cultural identity and promote citizenship values. It drives skills to advance their country and strive to develop it with all their skills and abilities.